Pivoting and relaying are advanced features of Meterpreter. They allow you to implement sophisticated post-exploitation strategies and expand your penetration into otherwise directly inaccessible systems. In this article, I would like to show you three different techniques for pivoting and relaying that can be used after you have exploited the first system.

First, let us have a look at the following scenario:

In this case, our IP address is; and from that machine, we are pen-testing a target organization that has a publicly exposed web server, with the public IP address The external firewall blocks all inbound traffic…

Introduction: Clearnet vs. Darknet

The Internet is divided — in terms of anonymity — into two nets: Clearnet and Darknet. The main difference between the two nets is traceability. In Clearnet, sources and destinations know about each other; in every communication, the source knows the destination address and the destination knows the source address. This is the Internet as most people know it; whenever you access a website, like,,, etc., your browser knows the exact address (IP) of each of those websites. They are traceable. Similarly, those websites know your IP address and can trace it back as well.

Let’s take…

A Step-by-Step Guide to Containerizing a Windows Virtual Machine — with RDP Access — on a Linux Docker Platform with KVM Hypervisor


Recently, I was tasked with developing a PoC of a lab environment where students can access their pre-installed and pre-configured machines — Linux and Windows — to do necessary training exercises. I wanted to make the access to all machines uniform over HTTP/HTTPS (browser-based). While the web-based access to machines can easily be implemented using a platform like Guacamole, the greater challenge was how to deploy the machines in a way that utilizes system resources — particularly, CPU, RAM, and HDD — efficiently and with speed. It became evident by that point that a technology like Docker containerization is the…

It is evident now that the approach to cybersecurity is shifting from preventive to proactive. Businesses and organizations are starting to understand that cybersecurity is not only about installing technologies that prevent cyber-attacks, but more importantly, it is about actively hunting for attacks as if they already took place. This shift in mindset and practice gave rise to a series of procedures and processes that collectively fall under the term Security Operations. And as such, a Security Operations Center (SOC) has become a trend followed by many large and sensitive corporates and organizations.

However, implementing a full-blown, well-functioning, and in-house…

Abed Samhuri

Abed is the lead of AXON Cyber Institute. He has nearly 15 years of experience in cyber security, as an engineer, consultant, and trainer.

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